“If we are poking around in neighboring worlds in our planetary system, then should not intelligent beings elsewhere in our solar system, as Lowell thought, or in other planetary systems, of which we now know there are many, shouldn’t they be visiting here?” —Carl Sagan




Having studied his writings for more than 50 years, I consider myself somewhat of a Carl Sagan scholar—but I am hardly alone in that regard. Sagan, a Pulitzer Prize–winning author, had, and still has, millions of loyal followers all around the globe who enthusiastically devoured every word and every book he ever wrote. My bona fides is my claim to be the world’s foremost authority on Sagan’s ETI beliefs, particularly his work on ancient alienism. With this book I believe I am the first to recover and make public written material on ancient alienism that was crafted by Dr. Carl Sagan that has been suppressed and covered up by NASA.


It introduces something that few knew existed: an obscure 1962 scientific paper, researched and written by Carl Sagan with the funding of a NASA grant while he was a Miller Research Fellow at the University of California at Berkeley, then completed and published while he was working as an assistant professor of genetics at Stanford University—a document that reveals a comprehensive model of ancient alienism developed by Carl Sagan that adheres to all the rules and strictures of the scientific method. It is a model crafted by a scientist who expected it to be evaluated by his peers in the scientific community. It was peer reviewed and published in a respected scientific journal, Planetary and Space Science, an elite and specialized journal that is still in the business of publishing the research of the world’s top space scientists—after which it effectively disappeared. Mysteriously, no one spoke of it, no one critiqued it, and no one referenced it. Through the years, as Sagan became famous, nothing was ever said of that paper. Today, it is probably fair to say that not one in a thousand people who think they know Carl Sagan are aware of its existence, and even fewer know that what he wrote in 1962 about interstellar spaceflight and past alien visitations to Earth, he continued to believe with great passion until his death in 1996 at the age of 62.


Thirty years later, after SETI (search for extraterrestrial intelligence) failed to detect an alien signal with radio telescopes, a mature Carl Sagan, by then the best-known scientist on the planet, was preparing to defy NASA, break his silence, and announce to the world his conviction that Earth is a visited planet. My charge is that in 1964, NASA officials, under the direction of the Pentagon, made the fateful decision to suppress the writings and muzzle the voice of a young Carl Sagan regarding his belief in ancient aliens.


This is an attempt to hold powerful institutions and individuals accountable for their actions. Of course I expect loud cries of indignation and categorical denials from representatives of all the accused parties, but, hopefully, along with their protestations and denials, they will answer the tough questions and address the straightforward issues that I raise in this book. If any of them want to confront me head-on, either in print or face-to-face in a public debate, I will be available.


The Conspiracy Theory


In this book I charge NASA with conspiring against Carl Sagan to keep knowledge of his belief in ancient aliens away from the public. Did Carl Sagan believe in ancient aliens? The paper written by Sagan, funded by a NASA grant, is indisputable proof that he did. Has the public been led to believe that Carl Sagan supported SETI’s attempt to intercept an alien signal with radio telescopes? Absolutely. Was Carl Sagan convinced from the beginning that the odds that a radio telescope search would be successful were basically nil? Without a doubt.


There are two ways one can become a conspiracy theorist. The first is to concoct a sensational scheme out of thin air and then argue for it with all the fire and passion of a revival preacher, evidence be damned. The second way is to uncover a legitimate conspiracy, do your best to collect and assemble all the evidence you can, and then turn it into a book that reasonable people will find compelling—and then look for a publisher daring enough to put it into print. After all, it involves a man of tremendous scientific stature, Carl Sagan; the world’s leading space agency, NASA; the world’s largest ETI search organization, SETI; and, behind the scenes, lurking in the shadows, the Pentagon. We’re not talking about small potatoes.


Other than to cite the agencies involved, I am not in a position to disclose the names and titles of individuals responsible for this travesty of justice, and for that I am thankful. My interest is not to indict people for wrongdoing as much as it is to focus on the positive and broadcast Sagan’s ancient alien research to as many people as I can in as short a time as possible. With that goal in mind, I urge everyone to tell others about this book and pass it on to a friend when you are finished. Spread the word that Carl Sagan was an ancient alien theorist. The more people who know the truth, the sooner NASA, SETI, and others will be forced to admit to the truth.


The ultimate dream of any investigative reporter is to uncover a major conspiracy and expose it in print. But to be believable they have to produce facts, not innuendo. The evidence has to be reproducible and verifiable, not hearsay. Sagan’s research paper is fact.  Sagan’s ancient alien writings in Intelligent Life in the Universe is fact.  That the last paper he was working on before he died was about spacefaring extraterrestrials is fact. Fill these facts in with NASA obfuscation and a veritable mountain of circumstantial evidence, and, in my estimation, there is more than enough material to prove a NASA conspiracy.


Like a book, the NASA conspiracy against Carl Sagan has three parts: a beginning, in 1964, when NASA suppressed his work on ancient alienism; a middle, from 1964 to 1990, when Sagan was not permitted to openly express his views on ancient alienism; and an ending, when he was preparing to defy NASA, break his silence, and take his ancient alien views public. Before he was able to complete his last paper, which was on ancient alienism, he died.


This book is based on the actual writings of Carl Sagan that conclusively prove that he believed in ancient aliens. Is there speculation? Of course. Do I at times extrapolate? I plead guilty. But one thing I don’t do is fabricate. I am sharing what I know as an honest truth seeker and I stand prepared to be corrected if I am wrong. This is not the end of proving a conspiracy, it is only the beginning, and in short order I expect both a public and a scientific consensus to emerge that I am right.


Sagan looked at the subject of past alien visitations to Earth through the critical eyes of a professional scientist. With earned degrees from Harvard and the University of Chicago, and an advanced understanding of the scientific method, he anticipated that what he wrote about ancient aliens would be meticulously scrutinized and critically analyzed by his peers in the scientific community. Only those claims and calculations that managed to survive the harsh gauntlet of expert examination would be allowed to stand, and those only conditionally—because all scientific claims, regardless of how well founded they might be, are always open to challenge.


That was the way that Sagan wanted it to be. He never had any intention of circumventing scientific protocols and going straight to the public with his research. That high standard is reflected in the technical and scientific nature of the paper that he wrote while at Stanford University.


The volume that you are holding in your hands is, to my knowledge, the first book of what I expect to grow into a new literary genre: science-based ancient alienism. There are, today, some working scientists and skilled writers trained in science who believe it possible that Earth has indeed been visited by aliens. Unfortunately, their voices are not being heard because of a justifiable fear that if they were to openly state their views, they would be discriminated against by the scientific establishment (i.e., NASA). It is my hope that, before long, credible arguments and evidence of past alien visitations to Earth can be submitted in scientific papers by mainstream scientists, with the confidence that they and their work will be treated fairly and professionally by their peers. What can be successfully debunked will be summarily but respectfully abandoned, and what can’t be debunked will be the subject of advanced investigation and analysis.


If my NASA conspiracy theory is true, how is it possible that the numerous authors who have written biographies about Carl Sagan over the years have failed to expose this? The fact is that several of them, and in particular Keay Davidson, have properly pointed out that Sagan believed in ancient aliens, and some, like him, alluded to this research, which I will refer to as the Stanford Paper. But for a variety of reasons, not least of which is an almost-hallowed reverence for NASA among writers of popular science, no one had identified all the various pieces of incriminating evidence and assembled them in a way that results in the inevitable conclusion that NASA conspired against Carl Sagan. Eventually the truth was bound to come out. Better late than never.


The modern reading public has little tolerance for scripted narratives that scrupulously avoid reality. Most people, I suspect, would prefer to know the unvarnished truth about Carl Sagan. Sagan himself was a study in contrast and complexity: outwardly supporting an ETI search strategy involving radio telescopes that he didn’t believe in, while inwardly clinging to an ancient alien theory that he knew NASA would never endorse. Now, it’s time that the truth about Carl Sagan be laid bare as millions around the world pause to remember and honor a great scientist and an even greater human being on the 20-year anniversary of his death.


After reading this book, those who remain skeptical of my claim of a government conspiracy against Carl Sagan will be waiting for NASA and others to respond and prove me wrong. I have no problem with that. NASA deserves the right to defend itself. But if they have no rebuttal and are unable to refute my claims, will that convince the holdouts that my conspiracy theory is true? I would like to think so, but, at the same time, exposing a hallowed institution like NASA of a major cover-up against a celebrity scientist, who faithfully served for three decades as its face and voice to the world, is something so shocking that many will not be able to accept it, even in the face of overwhelming evidence.


For the past nine years I have been on an incredible journey, uncovering secrets about Carl Sagan and ancient aliens that a lot of powerful interests were hoping would never see the light of day. Though the primary purpose of this book is to blow the whistle on a NASA conspiracy, it’s also to repair a reputation that will help make Carl Sagan better known and more relevant in the 21st century than he was in the 20th. Carl Sagan’s legacy deserves to be that he was the scientist who gave the world hope for a brighter future, and that, if we continue to build on the progressive principles that the founders of human civilization were taught by their alien visitors, there is nothing that can deny us that destiny.

NEXT: Chapter 1 Carl Sagan, Raw and Uncensored